A lower court also ruled against Trump in the third case involving Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance Jr.'s request for financial records from Mazars as part of a grand jury investigation of alleged hush money payments to two women during the 2016 election.
The justices are expected to announce tomorrow whether Congress and the Manhattan district attorney can see the president's taxes and other financial records he has fought to keep private.
The court remanded the case to the lower courts to decide exactly what Congress should be required to prove when subpoenaing the president, a process that could take months.
"If a delay is what Trump wanted, then I guess he won, even though the Court also provided a unanimous rejection of Trump's frivolous argument about presidential absolute immunity from the criminal law", Jens David Ohlin, a vice dean at Cornell Law School and an expert on criminal and constitutional law, told Business Insider.
Congress wanted Trump's tax records because providing tax records is what presidents have done for decades, and House investigators want to know who may be pulling Trump's financial strings, perhaps in ways that damage national security. "This is about PROSECUTORIAL MISCONDUCT", Trump raged on Twitter. But Justice Samuel Alito wrote in his majority opinion: "When a school with a religious mission entrusts a teacher with the responsibility of educating and forming students in the faith, judicial intervention into disputes between the school and the teacher threatens the school's independence in a way that the First Amendment does not allow". A subpoena to Deutsche Bank sought records on loans taken out by Trump and his organization. The case is scheduled to be argued in the court term that begins in October.
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"Congress may not get to shine a light on his pre-WhiteHouse financials".
In oral arguments in May, both Trump appointees on the court, Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh, seemed to coax Sekulow, without success, toward a more limited argument.
Judge Roberts rejected both the broad arguments for presidential immunity made by Mr Trump's lawyers and the sweeping arguments made in favour of the House's ability to investigate the President.
Trump's tax records are not likely to become public in the near future, under grand jury secrecy rules, but they could come to light if Trump is charged with a crime after he leaves office.
"The president is neither absolutely immune from state criminal subpoenas seeking his private papers nor entitled to a heightened standard of need", Roberts wrote for the court in the decision on the NY grand jury case.
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Justice department lawyers in that case argued that Congress had not demonstrated a legislative objective for the request and that such a request for a president's personal documents amounted to "harassment". "We reaffirm that principle today". The court said that while Congress has significant power to demand the president's personal information, it is not limitless.
In the Obama years, the court heard two cases on whether religious groups could refuse to comply with regulations requiring contraceptive coverage. "It is impossible to conclude that a subpoena is created to advance a valid legislative objective unless Congress adequately identifies its aims and explains why the president's information will advance its consideration of the possible legislation", he said.
"Congress and the President-the two political branches established by the Constitution-have an ongoing relationship that the Framers meant to feature both rivalry and reciprocity", Roberts wrote, apparently referring to constitutional checks-and-balances theory, as well as the separation of powers doctrine that prevents each of the three branches of the government from encroaching on their authority.
Trump, for his part, vociferously defended himself Thursday.
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